This useful Back to Basics poster describes the damaging changes that take place in three key body systems when HF with reduced ejection fraction is left untreated. The sympathetic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the natriuretic peptide system all undergo significant pathophysiological changes as HF progresses.
A really useful reference for your practice, this handy Back to Basics tells you all you need to know about heart failure treatments.
In this new series, BJPCN interviews key people leading major initiatives in the prevention and treatment of CVD and diabetes. Alastair Bailey, who leads the Brain Attack Team (BAT) at Leeds Teaching Hospitals Trust explains how the team ensures that patients with stroke receive prompt thrombolytic treatment to improve outcomes.
Beta blockers are well established drugs in the treatment of cardiovascular disease, after first being introduced 20 years ago. Today, they are used to treat patients with a range of cardiovascular conditions – hypertension, myocardial infarction, angina, heart failure and abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias). There is good evidence for beneficial effects with beta blockers and their use is recommended in many guidelines, including the recent British Hypertension Society guidelines. Prescribing of beta blockers in patients with heart disease is further encouraged as a 'quality marker' in the new GMS contract.
Since the first description of a beta-blocking agent in 1962, this class of drug has become among the most widely used in the management of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Betablockers are now used routinely after a myocardial infarction, in patients with angina pectoris and as an additional therapy in the management of high blood pressure. However, they have traditionally been avoided in heart failure because it was thought that they were potentially harmful. But some large, well-designed randomised controlled trials have provided an overwhelming body of evidence to dispel this myth once and for all.
Haemostasis is essentially the fine balance between activators and inhibitors that control the production of the protein tangle that makes up a blood clot. A range of drugs can interfere with this fine balance. In this article we guide you through the latest theories of how blood clotting occurs and explain how various drugs used as anticoagulants interfere with this normal haemostatic mechanism.
New data from the EMPA-REG OUTCOME and LEADER trials presented at the recent American Diabetes Association meeting show that the SGLT-2 inhibitor empagliflozin and the GLP-1 receptor analogue liraglutide significantly reduce cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular events in high-risk type 2 diabetes patients.