Male hypogonadism—also known as testosterone deficiency syndrome—occurs when the testes no longer produce enough testosterone. Testosterone deficiency may be an important factor in increasing a man's cardiovascular risk. However, the symptoms are often overlooked in older men, both by primary healthcare professionals and by patients themselves.
Many drugs are cleared from the body by the kidneys, so careful medicines management is especially important in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This article explains how to ensure CKD patients receive recommended therapies designed to protect their kidneys and reduce their risk of a heart attack or stroke.
Controlling heart rate is a key element of good care of patients with angina or heart failure. In this article we explore the benefit of effective heart rate control to reduce hospitalisation and alleviate symptoms. Measuring heart rate is simple, and can provide valuable benefits for many patients.
The liver is the body's unsung hero, quietly working away to make the vital substances that keep a wide range of essential body processes ticking over, breaking down chemicals that would otherwise be toxic and hoovering up worn-out blood cells. But liver disease is currently very low on the primary care agenda compared to other long-term conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and respiratory conditions. Awarded 'nil points' on the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF), the liver doesn't get a look in when it comes to health checks and dedicated clinics. So how can we make sure the liver isn't left out of consultations?
General practices are under increasing pressure to initiate insulin in type 2 diabetes, as it would be more efficient for the health service and more convenient for most patients. There are many different approaches to starting insulin, but it is essential for practice nurses to work closely with patients and progress slowly to ensure successful and safe outcomes.
The liver has many functions, and therefore diseases of the liver have numerous consequences. These can be detected and monitored with blood tests. This article provides a review of liver function tests, or LFTs, and how they relate to the key functions of the liver and some of the most common liver diseases.
Fat is an important part of the diet, providing fat-soluble vitamins and essential fatty acids, as well as a valuable source of energy or calories. Fat also increases the palatability and carries the flavour of many of our foods. The problem is, despite decades of public health campaigns, most of us still eat too much of the wrong fat. Understanding the different types of fat can help us to advise our patients on ways to optimise their diets.