Clots are life-saving in the right place at the right time, when they can stop us bleeding to death. But a clot in the wrong place can spell disaster, leading to heart attack, stroke, deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. This article explains why life-threatening clots can develop so quickly, what can be done to prevent them, and how each type of clot is treated.
UK guidelines recommend hands-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) as an option for untrained people, or when ventilation is difficult. But standard CPR with ventilation remains best practice, and it is vital to ensure that everyone in the practice knows how to use basic life support to save a patient's life after cardiac arrest.
Sending samples to the laboratory for investigation is so routine in primary care that it is easy to take these tests for granted. But, as this new series highlights, it is important to understand the purpose of each test and how to act on the results. This article examines thyroid function tests (TFTs), which are an essential part of diagnosing and treating thyroid disease.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is becoming increasingly common. Patients at greatest risk are the elderly with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and other long-term conditions such as hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. AKI carries a poor prognosis yet 30% of cases are preventable. In primary care we can help prevent AKI by empowering patients to take drug holidays—that is, temporarily stopping medications that become harmful to the kidneys during episodes of acute illness.
Dapagliflozin (Forxiga) is the first in a new class of oral antidiabetic drug that has been given the go-ahead for marketing in Europe, including the UK. Described as a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, this new preparation works on the kidneys to lower blood glucose. What does this new drug have to offer and how can it potentially help our patients with type 2 diabetes?
Dementia is a term used to describe a syndrome that can be caused by several illnesses, but the result is a decline in a person's abilities to function socially, mentally and in relation to the everyday activities of living. The condition is having an increasing impact on individuals, families and care services as the UK population ages. However, practice nurses can help make the experience of living with dementia more positive for the patient and their families or carers.
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) forms part of the same generalised vascular disease as coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. Recent National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines emphasise the importance of a standardised approach in primary care. The aims of this article are to provide an update for practice nurses, and to highlight the importance of asymptomatic PAD as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.