Results from the ADVANCE trial support the need for intensive efforts to promote smoking cessation in people with diabetes. As well as increased risks to cardiovascular health in all diabetic patients who smoke, women with diabetes who smoke appear to be at a greater risk of coronary events than men.
A 20-year study demonstrates that higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness reduce the risk for developing prediabetes or diabetes. This is the longest study conducted in this area and provides strong evidence that supports the commonly accepted view that fitness is beneficial in reducing the risk for prediabetes and diabetes.
Women with diabetes appear to be at a higher risk of developing vascular dementia than men, according to the results of a major systematic review including >2 million people published in Diabetes Care.
This article provides a simple guide to the do's and don'ts of insulin injection technique, taking you through the steps that patients need to go through to inject their insulin correctly.
Lipohypertrophy is surprisingly common in people using insulin to control their diabetes. As more and more people with diabetes are managed in primary care, practice nurses take on a greater role in the management and education of these patients. This article considers what lipohypertrophy is, how it can be prevented and how it should be managed once it has been identified.
How can primary healthcare professionals take diabetes care beyond the General Medical Services (GMS) contract towards creating a primary care centre of excellence, while earning maximum QOF points in the process? Many patients are currently not achieving good glycaemic control despite incentives to encourage healthcare practitioners to help their diabetes patients reach HbA1c targets. Several new policies and schemes have recently been implemented to provide incentives for reaching treatment goals, and this article discusses how these can be beneficial to both general practices and diabetes patients.
Glycaemic index (GI) is a hot topic, often misunderstood by healthcare professionals and patients. This article fills the gaps by explaining the low-GI diet in detail, describing the benefits and barriers to using GI in practice, the benefits in patients with diabetes and the controversy that surrounds it. The aim is to help primary care professionals to make informed decisions on when and how to use GI in helping patients with diabetes to plan their diet.
The journey from normal glycaemic control to type 2 diabetes is a gradual one and, importantly, gives us lots of opportunities to diagnose so-called 'pre-diabetes' and step in to reduce the chances of a patient developing full-blown diabetes, or at least delay its onset. In this article, we review the rationale for early intervention, help you make sense of impaired fasting glycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance and illustrate what to look out for with case studies of patients you are likely to see in your practice.
The new national strategy for vascular risk assessment, now being referred to as NHS Health Check, will include testing for diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). This follows a major evaluation of the evidence showing that it is more cost-effective to screen individuals for IGT than screening for diabetes alone, but only as part of the broader vascular risk assessment. This article examines the concepts of IGT and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and offers practical advice as to how these conditions can be managed in primary care.