Raised blood cholesterol is a major risk factor in developing coronary heart disease and other cardiovascular diseases. Effective and well-tolerated lipid-lowering treatment improves outcomes for patients with elevated cholesterol, especially those with familial hypercholesterolaemia.
About one fifth of people admitted to hospital each year as emergencies have acute kidney injury (AKI), and about two thirds of AKI starts in the community. These two useful wallcharts provide essential advice for GPs and practice nurses on how to recognise and respond to AKI in adults.
This article seeks to demonstrate the close relationship between cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD). It also highlights the importance of identifying people with CKD as a means of recognising people at high risk of both cardiovascular events and unplanned admissions.
Hypertension is the most important single risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). It affects over 25% of adults in England, but more than 5.5 million people remain undiagnosed. Although the number of adults with untreated hypertension has fallen, England’s performance still lags behind achievements in countries such as Canada and the USA, and there is scope for improvement.
The first Health Survey England (HSE) in 1994 revealed a ‘rule of halves’ since only half of people with hypertension were diagnosed, of which half were treated and of those, only half were controlled. Have matters improved over the more than 20 years since the first HSE survey?
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the commonest sustained cardiac dysrhythmia, but is asymptomatic in about one quarter of patients. Case finding with subsequent assessment of the risk of stroke and bleeding are essential to ensure that the right patients receive appropriate intervention with oral anticoagulation.
The prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF), together with the condition’s associated stroke and systemic thromboembolic risk, is increasing significantly. Fortunately, there are clear, evidence-based clinical guidelines and risk stratification tools, to ensure that patients can make informed choices about optimising their treatment and care.
In the first 15 months of its operation, Bradford’s Healthy Hearts campaign has significantly improved the cardiovascular health of local people, and saved an estimated £1.2 m for the clinical commissioning group.
Approaches to the prevention of cardiovascular disease should be tailored to each individual. But almost everyone will benefit from lifestyle interventions that have been shown to reduce cardiovascular risk.