The large randomised controlled trial PARADIGM-HF showed that treatment with sacubitril/valsartan (Entresto) compared with enalapril reduced the risk of hospitalisation, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality and improved symptoms in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. This article describes the key results and how they can be applied in primary care.
This article gives an overview of sacubitril/valsartan (Entresto), a first-in-class angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor comprising valsartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker and the neprilysin inhibitor sacubitril. The drug has been approved for the treatment of symptomatic (NYHA class (II-IV) chronic heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF) in adults.
The mechanisms underlying HF are complex and involve the interaction of many hormonal and molecular signalling pathways. These pathways form the basis of many pharmacological treatments, old and new. This article will examine the factors associated with the development of HF, the pathophysiology behind it and the neurohormonal pathways involved in established HF.
This useful Back to Basics poster describes the damaging changes that take place in three key body systems when HF with reduced ejection fraction is left untreated. The sympathetic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the natriuretic peptide system all undergo significant pathophysiological changes as HF progresses.
The UK faces an epidemic of heart failure (HF). NICE guidelines emphasise the importance of multidisciplinary assessment and care by HF specialists, evidence-based prescribing, and careful discharge planning after hospitalisation. This article highlights areas where improvements can be made in the management of HF including taking lessons from the latest National Heart Failure Audit.
HF has a major impact on patients, their families, the NHS and social care services. It still has a poor prognosis, worse than many of the common cancers that also affect older people. It causes significant morbidity and imposes a major cost burden on the health service. This editorial provides an introduction to a special supplement on a first-in-class oral treatment for heart failure.
This month’s Back to Basics feature is a wallchart to support this year’s seasonal flu vaccination programme.
More details can be found at https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/annual-flu-programme
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) has a major impact on the health and quality of life of patients and there is often co-morbidity with cardiovascular disease. Well planned and structured training for the primary care team could have a major impact on outcomes.
Intensified and multifaceted treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes and poor prognosis due to microalbuminuria extends median lifetime by 8 years compared with conventional therapy, according to a new long-term Danish follow-up study of the Steno-2 trial.